the ins and outs of door locks.
Choosing the right access control technology medium requires careful analysis and research, and this process takes quite a long time.
An important consideration ignored in the design of the access control system is the choice of electric locks and other electric door hardware.
The electric lock is combined with the door to provide a physical barrier to the safe area.
Therefore, the level of security in the region will depend on the choice of electronic hardware.
\"All brains, no brawn\" is the result of combining complex access control devices with invalid electric locking hardware.
The planning, design, and specified stages of implementing an access control system must include careful attention to the selection of electrical hardware.
Before security practitioners can effectively select the right electric lock for the application, it is important to understand the type of product and its components, including some relevant technical terms, operations, and product application technologies. Fail-safe and fail-
Safety is two terms associated with all electro-mechanical phase locks.
They are often exchanged by mistake. Fail-
Safety does not mean safety.
A man will think of a failed door
When the power is off, the security device remains locked.
The opposite is true. A fail-
When the power is off, the safe electro-mechanical lock will remain unlocked.
These types of locks are used for doors on the fire passage path.
The power circuit of the equipment is connected to the fire protection system of the equipment.
In the event of a fire, these locks can be relaxed reliably and directly through the fire protection system. Fail-
Security locks are sometimes called continuous locks. duty devices. Intermittentduty or fail-
In the event of a power outage, the security type of equipment will remain in the assigned position.
Power is required to unlock this type of device.
Faulty door at any time of power failure or power interruption-
The security device will remain locked. A fail-
Depending on the type of mechanical hardware in use, the lock of the safety type can be approved for use with the fire exit door.
A large number of electronic devices have been developed over the past 10 years, with a focus on security, access control and life safety.
The four lock types used as part of the auxiliary control system include magnetic locks, electric shocks, electric lock sets, and electric dead bolts.
These mechanical and electrical hardware devices use magnets in operation. Current--
Electricity can also be used as a solenoid through a circle of wires--
Generate a magnetic field that attracts or moves the piston or lever.
Through this action, the device is locked or unlocked, or the latch is recovered.
A special case of this kind of electro-magnetic effect is an induction lock, in which the magnet itself is the locking device.
The magnetic lock consists of two components: one is the magnet and the other is the bullet-proof board.
The inside of the door frame or the door frame is equipped with an induction magnet, and the door frame is equipped with a stri board.
The door is closed, the magnet is energized, and the impact plate is in contact with the magnet.
The holding force of the magnetic field fixed the door.
The holding power of the magnetic lock ranges from 500 to pound.
When the electricity is removed, the magnetic field is released and the door may be opened.
This type of magnetic lock is considered directhold or direct-pull lock. For high-
The use of frequency access control, since no moving parts are subject to operational wear, the application of magnetic locks is ideal.
During the drive, the impact plate is in rough contact with the magnet, and the magnetic field pulls the impact plate into flush alignment.
As a result, magnetic locks can be used in poorly installed existing wood and hollow metal doors, frameless glass or huge doors, and double doors, all open. Since direct-
Keep the magnetic locks installed on the surface and they should always be on the safe side of the door.
It is important to pay attention to the direction of the door swing.
The swing direction of the door will determine the type of mounting hardware and brackets required to hold the magnet and impact plate in place.
The special adhesive kit will allow the installation of magnetic locks on frameless glass or Herculite doors.
The \"U\" stand across the top of these door types provides an alternative way to connect the strike Board.
To satisfy aesthetic considerations, locking enclosures, brackets, and hardware that match the completion of existing hardware can be provided. Full-
Custom length housing
Made according to the width size of the door, especially suitable for doubleApply at the door. This tamper-
Since the locks and wires are protected by the housing, the resistance to installation provides greater safety. The full-
The length of the shell can be aesthetic decorated with the finish provided by the manufacturer, or it can be painted on site to match the finish of the door frame.
• Use hidden magnetic locks or shear locks when Aesthetics need not be allowed to expose surfacesmounted type.
Thanks to its narrow outline, Shearlock allows for easy hiding in the door frame, which is completely invisible when the door is closed.
The latch is placed in the door frame or in the threshold, and the strike plate is placed on the top edge of the door.
The continuous or adjacent parts of the shear lock are composed of agagnet and the strike plate.
With the door closing and positioning, the impact plate with a small amount of vertical movement is attracted by the lock.
The opening on the strike platform highlights the surface of the lock.
This prevents the impact plate from sliding down from the lock.
During installation, the precise alignment of the impact plate with respect to the magnet is critical.
In order to prevent continuous service problems, scissors locks may not be used on doors or frames that may be sunken, settled or distorted.
The shear lock can be mounted on the surface of the door frame, and the lock is parallel to the floor.
Strike board with L-attached to the surface of the doorshaped bracket. For double-acting (in-outswing)
Door, two surfaces.
Reliable locking methods are available. Direct-
Hold and shear locks are ideal for outdoor applications such as pedestrian entrance doors and car parking. Weather-
Stainless steel resistant
The steel housing provides protection against extreme weather for the locking mechanism.
To increase security, most access control systems monitor the status of the door controlled by the card reader.
Normally, the magnetic switch on the door indicates to the system whether the door is open or closed.
As an option, the sensor can be integrated into the body of the magnetic lock.
When the door is physically closed, the door \"safety\" signal will be reported through the access control system, and the strikeplate is properly positioned against the surface of the magnet and the magnet is opened.
This function eliminates the necessity and cost of installing the isolation door position switch.
All magnetic locks are continuous. duty (fail-safe)
Equipment that requires continuous power supply to keep power on and locked.
They work at low voltage DC with very small power consumption.
In order to avoid unsafe factors in the event of a power outage, an emergency power supply should be provided to maintain continuous operation.
For years, most of the electric locking devices used with access control systems have been electric shocks.
Due to their diversity, they are still the most popular equipment on the market.
Electric shock works with locks or hardware in the door.
The electric strike is mounted on the door frame, replacing the standard pocket strike plate for manual door locks.
Turn the lip or keeper to secure the latch of the manual door lock in the pocket.
It is held in the locked position by a wedge connected to the asolenoid.
When the solenoid is powered on, the wedge is removed and the lip may rotate so that the latch bolt is removed from the impact and the door opens.
A spring brings the door back to its original position.
When the door is closed, the diagonal edge of the door lock on the lips and fall into the pocket.
The correct strike selection depends on the hardware type or the location of the door.
There are plug-in, cylindrical, unit and rim locks. Thelatch-
The Bolt projections for these locks range from 3/8 \"to 7/8\", which will help determine which type of blow to use for each application.
Another important factor in determining the right choice of strike is the structure of the door frame.
The most common door holes or door frames are divided into three types: Wood, tubular aluminum and hollow metal.
The electric strike was designed for each of these applications, but each brought some installation problems.
The wood rack installation can be beautiful, but this process sometimes requires a large amount of wood to be removed from the wood rack.
This may make the frame weak and in aforced-entry attempt.
A certain type of anchor or bracket should be used to secure the impact on the wall or on the bolt behind the wooden frame.
The tubular aluminum frame may not have enough depth to accept the electric shock assembly.
Sometimes, the internal support bracket or glass on the side light next to the door protrudes into the frame, thus reducing the depth required to properly install the strike.
The installation of hollow metal doors and frames can also cause problems.
During construction, many frames are filled with cement or plaster, making the installation of the strike more time-consuming.
Work under Low Voltage AC or DC.
The AC operation provides familiar buzz.
This noise is caused by the current pushing and pulling the solenoid, a total of 60 times per second.
Strikesare available for failure-safe or fail-
The electric lock is electrically locked or unlocked with knobs, levers, or thumb parts on one or both sides of the lock.
The solenoid replaces or copies the action of a key that allows manual activation (turn orpush)
The handle or lever of the door, thus opening the door.
Locks can be used as cylindrical locks or latch locks.
The lock will replace the mechanical Manual cylinder or pin Wood and hollow metal doors, providing clean and attractive installation.
To control the start of the lock, there is a power supply from the frame to the door.
An electric hinge or pivot is a device that provides a concealed method of transferring power from the frame to the swing door.
Flexible cable rings can be used when not considering the US.
In order to meet many building and life safety specifications, electric locks can be operated under both faultssafe and fail-secure modes.
Property selection will depend on code requirements and existing hardware compatibility.
For two-way swinging doors, solenoid-activated latch or bolt locks can provide an acceptable alternative to magnetic shear locks.
They all offer the advantage of hiding the installation and provide a more secure locking method.
The Bolt, which is perpendicular to the locking mechanism, may be round in shape or inclined latch.
The automatic re-lock switch will hold the bolt or latch back until the door is in a closed position.
The lock is converted into the standard lock height of the door frame or door frame.
For special applications, the lock may blur into the bottom track of the door frame.
Alignment of the minimum gap between door and frame or head is a key factor in choosing dead anglebolt device.
The application of dead bolts includes doors consisting of wood, hollow metal, heckule, glass with metal frame and two open doors.
The use of two dead people-bolt locks (
Ie top and bottom)
The door may need to be properly protected.
Electric dead bolts can be used as continuous-according to specific applications-
Or intermittent. duty devices.
Most building and life safety regulations prohibit the use of these equipment on roads at high exitsrise buildings.
The stair tower provides a safe way to exit in the event of a fire.
Fire and Life Safety regulations stipulate that all doors leading to stairs must be kept closed and locked in order to prevent smoke and fire.
The manufacturer is dead.
The bolt lock is operated with a matching pin lock that meets the safety specifications.
Basic product knowledge and application technology are important factors in selecting products.
It can be disastrous to use a product that is not suitable for the application, or at least an expensive error.
Effective Design standards should take into account code requirements, operational and traffic flows, door and frame structures, pre-existing door hardware, aesthetics, interfaces with access control systems, power requirements, safety requirements, and budget allowance.
Code requirements should be carefully considered.
The building and fire protection codes generally require the use of approved products and operate them as part of the system.
It becomes complicated to apply this code.
In many cases, approval is left to local authorities with jurisdiction, usually consisting of a local fire department, a construction department or both.
In some parts of the country, manufacturers must submit their products for evaluation.
For example, in New York City, the materials and equipment acceptance Agency (MEA)
The original Standards and Appeals Board evaluates each unit and issues a list of approved products.
The National Fire Protection Association is adopted in multiple states, cities and county jurisdictions (NFPA)
Code of life safety and underwriting laboratory (UL)
Product compliance standards.
Here are some of the basic security elements included in most code programs: * all exit doors must be opened through an action that does not require special knowledge.
This eliminates outlet buttons, digital keyboards, keys, card readers and other electronic devices.
Approved exits include turning the lever or holding the handle or holding the panic bar.
* Free exit is required for any part of the building.
Access control for indoor doors will require application of faults-
Safety electric lock.
These devices will be required to be unlocked on fire signals provided through the fire protection system of the facility. * Fire-
Rated doors on stair towers and firewalls must remain closed and locked, but free exits are allowed in case of fire.
The electrified hardware selection for this application is correct. All fire-
Rated doors and frames must have fire-
Rating hardware to maintain its rating.
Any changes to the fire-
Rated doors and frames usually cancel their UL or factory mutual certification.
Any modification of these products requires the approval of an authorized body with jurisdiction.
To make things more complicated, the American bill on Disability (ADA)
January 26, 1992 1990 of day entry into force.
Relevant judicial regulations prohibit discrimination based on disability and require the design, construction and change of public accommodation and commercial facilities to comply with ada accessibility standards.
These standards will affect the design and application of life safety and safety systems and equipment.
For example, door hardware, such as handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operating devices on barrier-free doors, should have a shape that is easily grasped by one hand.
Can adjust the cleaning of the closing door, the height of the card reader and other safety devices and the maximum installation height.
Depending on the location, the door needs the maximum prescribed opening force.
Compliance with ADA standards while meeting security requirements will make the choice of mechanical and electrical hardware a key issue.
Although architects can specify custom materials to meet a variety of aesthetic issues, standard mechanical and electrical hardware can often be applied to achieve the desired results.
Most electric lock manufacturers offer the device the option to match or supplement the existing door hardware (
Knob, handle, hinge, skirting, astragals, and frame, for example).
To the architect\'s delight, some of the devices are completely hidden and become invisible as the doors are closed.
Other hardware devices that may affect the operation of the electric lock include door closers and card access outlet devices.
Close the door to make sure the door is its ownclosing.
These may need to be adjusted in order to ensure the active participation of the electric locking mechanism.
Export devices may include buttons, panic bars, card readers, motion detectors, or other electronic devices.
The choice of these devices may limit the application of electronic hardware.
Mechanical and electrical products operate at AC or DC low voltage (
Usually 12 V or 24 V)
Consume very little electricity.
Most access control systems provide a \"dry contact\" output to lock and unlock the electric lock.
In order to power the lock, a power supply consisting of an AC operating transformer or a DC operating power supply should be provided. Forcontinuous-duty locks (fail-safe)
Emergency power should be considered.
Some access control systems usually provide a voltage output of 12 volts. DC or 24 volts-DC.
Voltage compatibility and sufficient power output are important factors to consider in this interface.
When connected to this type of electronic device, the DC power supply is better because it is less noisy and therefore less likely to harm the electronic components in these systems.
Improving the security level of the facility is one of the main reasons for implementing the access control system.
The main function of the system is to restrict access to the authorization area.
The mechanical and electrical products with the door provide a physical barrier for the area to control.
The required security level will determine the choice of electronic hardware.
For example, the perimeter door of the facility may require a more complete lock than the one used on the interior door.
In the safety planning of the door, it is useless to place a strong lock on the weak door.
In response to the challenges of various applications, manufacturers have expanded their product lines to include devices in all categories of mechanical and electrical hardware.
With a large number of products, it will take some research to decide the most effective equipment.
The first step is to understand these products and their applications.
It can be confusing to view many products separatelyconsuming.
If one understands the functionality of each of the four basic hardware types, it will be easier to specify the device regardless of the manufacturer.
The information provided in the manufacturer\'s product literature should be reviewed.
Manufacturersoffer application guide and a number of educational seminars provided.
The manufacturer\'s representative, distributor and hardware consultant are also excellent sources of information.
Fred Miehl of CPP is the head of the security advisory group of the Electronic Systems Association of New York City.
He\'s a member of Assisi.