security and technology: the past 30 years.
At the beginning of 1970, the technology within the standard Correctional Facility was mainly limited to relatively simple systems supporting door control and monitoring functions, and limited closure
Circuit TV function, intercom system and public address system.
The structure of these systems is usually \"independent. alone\" systems.
For example, the door control system is usually controlled by a relay or directly hard.
Wired, the system will usually be a product made by a door lock manufacturer.
In general, walkie-talkie and paging systems are provided and installed by subcontractors specializing in audio systems, while
Another subcontractor specializing in these systems provided and installed a circuit television system.
Today, the structure of secure electronic devices and communication systems has changed significantly.
Compared with products 30 years ago, these products have significant technological progress, new products are constantly launched, and must be considered for current and future applications.
The following will discuss selected technologies or products, as well as the importance of product changes or development of new products or technologies compared to systems incorporated into the correctional system, affecting the structure of today\'s security system 1970 facility security system design
The space limitations of this article exclude an extended survey of the subject, and the absence of a specific product or technology in this material does not mean that the product or technology lacks meaning.
In addition, the order of presentation of each of the following topics does not affect the importance of the product or technology, as all system components support the safety and operational objectives of the correctional facility. Controllers (
In the early 1970 s, the controller (1)
For correctional facilities, it is usually designed and used by a mechanical and electrical relay used to perform logic functions.
These economic trolls are usually very hard.
Wired and variations provide little or no flexibility and they are not connected to the Internet.
By the end of 1970, solid state controllers were introduced, which often provided a way to program or modify monitoring and control functions by programming software related to the microprocessor.
Usually, changes in the logic function need to burn the software into the EPROM (
Erasable programmingonly memory)chip.
Popular controller in the medium term1970s to mid-
1980swere is usually a custom product from a company that has developed a product that is primarily used for correctional facilities, or that product may be a custom application for products designed for other applications.
For example, several manufacturers of control systems for heating and air conditioning applications provide controllers for correctional facility applications.
Basically, all customized controllers contain proprietary software and features that affect the procurement and maintenance process.
The Customizedcontroller integrates programmable functions and provides a means for multiple controllers in the network.
In turn, the network provides a means of actual and economic monitoring of the equipment from a distance, which provides a more flexible monitoring structure for security personnel. By the mid-
1980 s, programmable logic controller, mainly designed and manufactured to support automatic control in automotive manufacturing, oil and general industries, because of the cost-effective and demonstrated the function of supporting the safety function of correctional facilities and
An important feature of the controller is the programming of required logic functions by using ladder logic, a common form of programming for relay logic control systems.
This programming form is not proprietary and extends the programmer base to support initial system programming for new facilities and to provide manufacturers of capability controller equipment for future maintenance and/or programming modifications.
Today, programmable logic controllers are the main control equipment used to support the security electronic backbone of related facilities.
This is a microprocessor.
Based on the system with multiple controllers of the network and the communication capability with the LAN interface (LAN)
Standardized data interface with other devices.
The processor speed and communication data rate are significantly improved, so the delay time for executing the command is negligible.
It is expected that the programmable logic controller will continue as a fundamental element of the network controller integrated into the structure of the security electronics and communication systems in correctional facilities.
At the beginning of 1970, the operator interface is a typical security control room that includes relatively large door control and monitoring functions as well as separate control panels for intercom and paging functions. Closed-
Circuit TV monitors are usually installed on walls or adjacent parts of the console.
The operation of each individual system is independent of other systems and requires security personnel to take multiple actions to control the door, select the intercom station and select the appropriate closing method
A circuit TV camera for viewing remote events.
The door control panel is usually a large panel containing linevoltage (120 volt), industrial-type switches.
Walkie-Talkie System is usually an extension of the switch array commonly used in schools.
To activate the required control function, it is common to route each cable or wire associated with the panel directly to the control panel position.
This causes a large number of cables and related terminal devices to be located under or near the control panel.
These cabling or cabling restrictions bring significant negative factors related to system maintenance and severely limit the relocation or modification of the panels.
With the advent of the microprocessor controller, the cabling system structure has been modified to connect all devices to the secure electronic room where the microprocessor controller is located.
This promotes low adoption.
The voltage cable system that will route from the computer room to the control panel eliminates many cable problems previously encountered.
With the continuous development of the microprocessor, the hardware can install the microprocessor on the control panel, and only need a data link to realize the control function from the control panel to the microprocessor controller located in the computer room.
The system architecture provides greater flexibility in maintaining and modifying control and monitoring functions and simplifying cabling systems.
From early to middle
1980 s, the control panel is usually configured with laminated film switches or minicomputer switches that replace the large industrial switches and lights that are pre-installed in the control panel.
These changes promote the increase in the density of control and monitoring functions in the control panel and are therefore a more efficient operation panel.
The microprocessor controller provides operator efficiency because a single operator function will initiate a series of control or monitoring functions that previously required multiple operator functions.
For example, now confirming that an internal communication call request automatically selects the correct audio call path, select the appropriate
The TV camera and route the video image to the corresponding video monitor.
Options for the operator interface have changed significantly in the early to mid-term1990s.
Personal computers have been developed with significant memory capacity and speed to support the functions required between video operatorsface terminal.
Custom software has been developed to configure the computer screen as a control panel from multiple sources.
By using a touch screen, a normal mouse, or other conventional control device, you can interact with the control screen.
This technology facilitates the routing of control and monitoring information to the operator interface
The required basis and eliminates the requirements for large panels that come late at each operator\'s location.
Human-machine interface software continues to develop.
The speed and storage capacity of personal computers have increased dramatically, and video display terminals have made significant progress in recent years and will continue to be maintained.
These developments have led to an increase in the use of computer and video terminals and have become viable options for security staff operator terminals.
With the development of tablet technology, the requirements of case work have changed, which greatly reduces the depth of case work in the past.
Device configurations currently available for each operator\'s location make it easier to support ergonomics.
At the beginning of 1970, in the correction facility security system, the network that provides communication connections between distributed system components basically does not exist.
With the development of the controller, the communication between the controllers is also developing.
Since the facility adds distributed controllers to the structure of the secure electronic system, a communication network is installed to support the specific requirements of the controller.
Networks were and are needed to provide communication links between device nodes.
Network is usually required for programmable logic controllers, video switches, access control systems, microprocessor
Control intercom system, electronic peripheral detection system and other security system.
From the beginning of 1970 to the end of 1980, the network usually adopts a metal conductor structure, and the data communication rate is relatively low.
The Internet has changed significantly over the past decade.
The main communication media connecting network devices currently use optical fiber-
This technology provides large bandwidth that directly supports high bandwidth.
Speed of data transmission.
In addition, fiber-
The optical transmission system is not affected by the magnetic interference of the metal conductor.
As the available bandwidth of the network increases, the terminal devices connected to the network are enhanced to take advantage of the available bandwidth.
The development of Ethernet LAN is a meaningful development, which provides a common support path for many security system components.
System components have been developed and are continuing to be developed, which will interface with the Ethernet LAN.
LAN communication usually extends the communication connection to the WAN.
The structure of theLAN must be considered to ensure that security features are not compromised by unauthorized access.
Today, it is common for devices to be compatible with Lan.
This capability facilitates the connection of system components and supports a high degree of integration of security devices and their related functions.
Perimeter detection system technology was also largely absent at correctional facilities in early 1970.
During that time, the traditional peripheral security system included a personnel Tower located around the facility and a Installable-
Perimeter fence systemBy the mid-
1970 s. Technologies developed primarily for defense activities are being decrypted and can be used at correctional facilities.
People are often reluctant to remove security personnel from the tower;
However, the system was installed to provide an opportunity to evaluate peripheral technologies.
For some facilities, the electronic perimeter detention system complements the security provided by the personnel tower system.
For many new facilities, a detection system is installed and security personnel are placed in vehicles, which helps to make an immediate physical response to an alarm event.
Since the beginning of 1970, some technologies or systems designed for perimeter detection functions have stopped production, while new systems or products have been developed.
Significant enhancements to peripheral detection security devices include enhanced signal processing, improved detection capabilities, reduced false positives, and enhanced diagnostic capabilities to support system setup and maintenance functions.
Although some correctional systems do not use or restrict the use of peripheral detection systems, the use of peripheral detection systems is common in many correctional systems, it also provides effective means to strengthen the security around correctional facilities. Closed-
Circuit television systems in 1970s generally include monochrome cameras that use camera imaging tubes.
The video quality is limited and the life of the camera imaging tube needs to be adjusted and replaced frequently.
In addition, system applications are limited to dedicated video links between specific cameras and video monitors.
In addition, there are very few devices that can implement video switching, which will help to switch between a single camera and multiple video monitors.
However, several major technological advances occurred in the 1980 s.
One is closed development.
Use a solid-state imaging device to replace the circuit television system camera of the camera.
The original solid-state imaging equipment was used for monochrome applications.
Solid state shutdown by the end of 1980/early 1990-
Circuit TV system cameras with color imaging equipment can be provided.
Today, the quality of the cameras and their video images is significantly improved compared to the cameras of the past decade, and the cost of the cameras is significantly reduced.
The development of video matrix switches using Microprocessor controllers promotes closure-
Detour television system cameras in correctional facilities.
The switch provides a way to route from a closed video image
Move the circuit TV system camera to multiple locations in an efficient manner.
Today, the locked state is guiding major interests --
Influence of circuit TV system industry on video communication
TV system cameras and video surveillance through the Internet.
The specific application of video system will have a significant impact on the control process of video communication system and video switching function.
Recorded video recorder closed
Circuit television system video is not common in the early to mid-term1970s.
However, by the end of 1970/early 1980, the industry responded to video recording requirements through video cassetterecorders. By the mid-
The 1980 s, VHS record format is considered to be the dominant format, and the video recorder is integrated into
Circuit television system.
Due to the large bandwidth requirements of video signals and the limited storage capacity of vhst, the video recording systems of many cameras are both expensive and difficult to manage in tape management and storage.
By the end of 1990, with the support of the simulation technology of the VHS recorder system, the use of digital technology for crazy storage of video images has been a major development.
Digital video recorder provides a means to store video
High-profile hard drives
Fast access to the stored video greatly reduces the time it takes to retrieve the video information for review.
The digital video recorder provides a way to transmit video images on the digital video recorder\'s hard drive to a monitoring or viewing location via an Ethernet LAN.
The software function of the current digital video recorder unit allows the user to selectively program recording parameters on each device
Camera benchmarks, such as recording frame rates and video resolutions, and dynamically modifying these parameters as per application requirements.
Record costs have been significantly reduced over the past few years, and the cost of digital video orders is expected to be further reduced and performance improved.
With the development of closure
Circuit TV camera with Internet function, with high
The capacity storage unit can be used to store and retrieve video images, rather than a packaged digital video recorder for selecting applications.
Access control system of 1970 s, access control technology application (2)
Card reader technology is mainly the type of magnetic card.
In the 1980 s, the card reader was developed using proximity technology.
This technology provides a higher level of security than most magnetic card systems, and the reader is more vulnerable to damage than magnetic card readers.
In addition to the card reader technology, it is also developed for biometric readers that can be integrated in access control systems.
The development of biometric devices includes readers based on hand geometry, retina patterns, iris patterns, face patterns and fingerprints.
These technologies provide the opportunity to select access control equipment as needed to support the security objectives of correctional facilities.
Technology development related to control system, Operation interface, network, perimeter detection system
Circuit television systems, video recorders and access control systems have greatly affected the structure and functional performance of electronic security systems used for correction facilities.
Current technologies strengthen the integration of security systems to achieve operational efficiency and provide correctional staff with a more comfortable environment than 1970 and 1980 correctional facilities
Technology has been in a state of development, so it is an ongoing challenge for those who have the responsibility to choose the appropriate technology and integrate it into new or refurbished correctional facilities. ENDNOTES (1)
As far as this article is concerned, the controller is a system component that provides monitoring functions for security systems. (2)
For the purposes of this paper, access control systems are defined as systems that use card readers, key pads, and biometric readers as devices that facilitate access to space or areas.
Anthony Zelenak is the chief project manager of the facility activation Bureau of the Arizona corrections department in Phoenix. H. Buford Goff Jr.
It is the president of Buford Gough and the group company.
A consulting engineering company in Columbia, USAC.