definition of standard office environments for evaluating the impact of office furniture emissions on indoor voc concentrations.
From 1989 to now, American organizations have stipulated the discharge of office furniture (Washington 1989US EPA 1996; US EPA 1999;
California 2004; USGBC 2004;
BIFMA 2005a, 2005b; SCS 2005;
In these different projects, the environmental room test for office furniture workstations or components is used to determine the emission rate, this in turn is used to estimate the impact of workstation systems on VOC concentration levels in actual buildings by using the prescribed office environment model (i. e.
, Crew exposure scene).
Some of these projects define an office environment model that represents a particular building (Washington 1989US EPA 1996;
Other models that do not contain any office environment (US EPA 1999).
The proliferation of office furniture emission plans using a variety of potentially outdated office environment models raises the question of how these models represent the actual building environment, it makes it difficult to compare VOC emissions across the entire range today with a wide variety of office furniture.
The purpose of this study is to define a standard, representative \"worst\"
Case \"office environment model of new office furniture used in North American office buildings.
This office environment model is designed to provide a common basis for the comparison of various office furniture and related emission requirements.
These comparisons with the requirements typically occur when the results of the environmental chamber emission test are used to estimate the impact of office furniture emissions on indoor VOC concentrations.
The study was conducted in conjunction with a working group of the association of commercial and institutional furniture manufacturers (BIFMA)(1)
Furniture emission standards (International)FES)
The subcommittee supports the development of the BIFMA M7. 1-
2005 Standard Test Methods.
General Affairs administration of the United States, 1994 (GSA)
BIFMA is required to develop a unified, voluntary and open consensus standard for office furniture emission testing.
Work started, on 1998, the BIFMA started the notification system through the ANSI project (PINS)
It was announced that a draft ANSI standard for office furniture emissions was being developed.
At the same time as this work, BIFMA and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The Triangle Institute and other relevant stakeholders have helped to develop a large chamber emission test agreement for office furniture in the us epa 1999.
The work of bifma fes continued, reiterating the ANSI pins of office furniture emission standards in 2004 and leading to a test method development project, including this study conducted in 2005.
The results of this study have been incorporated into BIFMA M7. 1-
2005 test method, which was released by BIFMA in September 2005 in accordance with the industry consensus and adopted by the US Green Building Commission as an alternative compliance pathway (USGBC)
Leading position in commercial interior Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-CI)
Environmental Quality (EQ)credit 4. 5 for low-
Furniture in July 12, 2006.
State governments in California and Minnesota have merged the BIFMA M7.
1 The respective test methods in the procurement specification of office furniture.
Scientific Certification System (www. scscertified. com)
Also the BIFMA m7.
1 test method as part of their indoor advantage [TM]
Certification Program. (2)
The office environment model defines the size and volume of office space, the number and type of surface area of office furniture, and the rate of outdoor cleaning airflow.
In this study, 31 floor plans were randomly selected from North American office buildings for detailed analysis.
The plan is from the current project (
Late 2004, early 2005)
It is provided by the industry departments of 7 major office furniture manufacturers (
See \"confirmation \").
The analysis includes recording the potential emission surface area of each workstation and determining the public office space (aisles, etc. )
Shared between workstations and other adjacent spaces.
From the analysis of more than 5000 workstations, 90 percentile conditions for the total area of furniture in the 50 percentile workstations floor area size range were determined to provide representative \"worst-
Case \"office environment model for estimating the impact of office furniture emissions on VOC concentration.
This study is based on the layout of the office and the dimensional analysis of related furniture.
These drawings do not include measurements or specifications of ceiling height or airflow levels present in each building.
Therefore, the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-
Standard 2001 and ANSI/ASHRAE 62. 1-
2004 in addition to being used to determine the minimum amount, air purification needs to determine a representative of the \"worst
Office Environment Model.
Two ASHRAE 62.
1 standard was used because most US jurisdictions designated ASHRAE 62 as the minimum legal ventilation requirement in building codes, and USGBC has specified ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62. 1-
2004 as a prerequisite for the LEED project.
For the determination of the number of offices, a. 2. 74 m (9 ft)
The height of the ceiling is considered to represent \"the worst --Situation \".
The author notes Standard 62.
1 Calculation of standard and emission concentration based on stability-
State environment dependent on airflow rate (cfm or L/s)
Not room capacity.
Office Environment model--
The missing factor office environment model is used to estimate the impact of office furniture emissions on indoor VOC concentrations using the following equation (
Refer to BIFMA M7. 1-Section 2005. 6).
Equation 1 calculates VOC concentrations in office environments due to emissions measured by office workstation systems. C(t)= [[[A. sub. 0]E(t)]/[Q. sub. 0]](1)where C(t)
= VOC concentration in office environment defined at that time (t)
Mg/[interested /[m. sup. 3][A. sub. o]
= Office furniture workstation source I. e.
Emission surface area [m. sup. 2]E(t)
= The measured emission coefficient of the office workstation at that time (t)
Interested mg /([m. sup. 2]h)[Q. sub. o]
= Outdoor, clean air ventilation flow in the office environment ,[m. sup. 3]
/H voc concentration C (t)
Since office furniture can be calculated, the emission factor E (t)
Can be measured from chamber tests, but the challenge is to determine the appropriate surface area for emission [A. sub. 0]
And outdoor, clean air ventilation flow [Q. sub. 0]
Use exposure mode in office environment.
It is obvious from Equation 1 that the area of the luminous table [is] LargerA. sub. 0]
It will lead to higher VOC concentration and more outdoor cleaning airflow [Q. sub. 0]
It will lead to a decrease in VOC concentration.
Therefore, it is necessary to determine that the representative is \"worst-
Case conditions [A. sub. 0]and [Q. sub. 0]
In combination, I. e.
Under what reasonable conditions, the surface area of office furniture with the least outdoor cleaning air flow will be the most?
Determination of air flow rate for outdoor cleaning [Q. sub. 0]
The US building code provides minimum legal requirements for architectural design and construction.
While each jurisdiction or municipality is responsible for determining its specific requirements, the vast majority adopt existing model regulations or standards.
Most jurisdictions have established minimum standards based on ASHRAE standards specifically for building ventilation.
The most widely used model specification for heating, ventilation and cooling systems of construction machinery, the international machinery specification of the international specification Council (IMC 2003)
Section 403rd stipulates that the building ventilation system must provide the lowest outdoor cleaning airflow rate for the occupied space according to the room occupancy type (3)(e. g.
Office, meeting room, hallway, kitchen, etc. )
And occupant density (i. e.
, The personnel present in the net occupied area of each unit)
ASHRAE Standard 62-defined in2001.
It is expected that ASHRAE 62 will be adopted for future revision of building codes. 1-2004 standard.
As mentioned earlier, the usgbc leed plan (USGBC 2004)
ASHRAE 62 was also passed. 1-
2004 The standard is a prerequisite for receiving 15 possible points under \"indoor environmental quality. \" ASHRAE 62-
2001 at least 10 L/s per person (
Cubic feet per person per month)
Outdoor clean air ventilation in office space. ASHRAE 62-
2001 The estimated maximum occupancy density per 100 person\'s office space is also specified [m. sup. 2]or 1000 f[t. sup. 2]
Net space occupied.
However, the ventilation rate procedure in ASHRAE 62. 1-
2004, Section 6, determine outdoor clean air ventilation rates using equation 2, ASHRAE 62. 1-
2004 calculation of minimum requirements for outdoor airflow :[V. sub. bz]= [R. sub. p][P. sub. z]+ [R. sub. a][A. sub. z](2)where [V. sub. bz]
= Outdoor cleaning airflow rates required for the breathing area of the occupied space however, the authors are unable to determine the existing studies that specifically target office workstation sizes for buildings with new furniture (
Represents new office workstation applications and trends).
The existing research and experience of office furniture manufacturers firmly support the trend of shrinking the footprint of installing office workstations.
Eight-year study by the International Association for facilities management (IFMA)
This shows that the staff of the US office are forced to adapt to less and less space in all categories.
1997 and a survey of facility professionals in 2002 and 1994 showed that the average square foot allocated to each worker has been decreasing \"(IFMA 2004).
Given the open planning nature of many office buildings, the workstations and the surrounding \"public\" spaces are affected by the content, size and configuration of the entire office floor plan.
The entire floor plan also has a direct impact on US building codes and ASHRAE ventilation standards.
Therefore, the analysis of the size of the workstation must start from the floor plan of the office building.
A volunteer working group of the BIFMA furniture emission standards subcommittee, representing seven major office furniture manufacturers, agreed to provide and assist in the analysis of random samples of customer floor plans for projects from the end of 2004 to the beginning of 2005.
When selecting the scheme, the analysis scheme has not yet been fully determined or completed, and participants do not know what impact the large and small buildings, large and small workstations have, or other variable parameters may be available in the analysis.
Participants were asked to randomly select the floor plan from the current project, but to focus on the floor plan containing as many size details as possible in all the included office furniture.
In order to maintain consistency in the analysis of the floor plan area and assign any public office space to adjacent areas that may share ventilation, the following steps are taken for each floor plan.
First, determine the total usable area.
Given ASHRAE 62. 1-
2004 definition of net occupied space and review definition of usable building area in existing office building area measurement standards (ANSI/BOMA 1996; ASTM E1836-01)
For the purposes of this study, the total usable building area is defined as the total area of the internal building minus the main vertical penetration minus the public area of the building.
Vertical penetration usually includes stairwells, elevators, static pressure wells, etc.
The public area of the building provides services to the building tenants, but is not within the office area of any particular tenant, usually including public facilities/mechanical rooms, restrooms, concierge closets, lobby, etc.
Can also exclude occupied non
Office areas such as the cafeteria and kitchen, unless they are immediately adjacent (i. e.
, Open directly or have a door open)
Public space in general office (see Figure 2).
General Office public space is usually used as an walkway or aisle and can be used as a combination of open meeting/gathering areas, fax/copier work areas or similar functions.
If you can occupy non
Office areas are next to each other, and then, when allocating common office public space, they are treated as another \"area of interest \", unless the doors that separate these spaces from common office public spaces are usually closed most of the timee. g.
, Public reception area or corridor outside multiple elevators
Floor building with multiple tenants).
Second, determine the total meeting room area of all meeting rooms displayed on the floor plan and the total corridor area of All floors-to-
Ceiling corridor shown on floor plan.
Exclude meeting areas that belong to private offices or open plan areas.
Corridors must be closed on at least three sides with floorto-
Ceiling walls or doors.
3. Calculate the usable area of the open plane and the usable area of private office.
Open floor plan usable area is the total floor area occupied by all open floor plan workstations, plus a prorated portion of common office public space.
To calculate the usable area of an open plan, the total space occupied by all open plan workstations is divided by the total floor area of all \"interested areas\" and then multiplied by the total usable area (see Figure 2).
\"Area of interest\" is an area of building that can be occupied (e. g.
Private Office, floor-to-
Ceiling Meeting Room, pure corridor space, etc. )
Adjacent to general office space, usually around an open office or close to a private office.
Calculate the usable area of a private office similarly, but use the total footprint occupied by all private offices instead of open workstations.
Allows the allocation of General Office public space to individual open plans and private office workstations, and the calculation of the specific ratio of each floor plan assigned to the public area of the open plan and private office is shown in equation 3.
Tables 1 and 2 show the final building area data for each building plan.
Equation 3 calculates the allocated public area as a percentage of the open plan or private office.
General area of 2001 square meters; BIFMA 2005; SCS 2005).
Determine the emission standard for a subset of the total surface area of the workstation (i. e.
Working surface, panel surface, storage surface, etc. )
Is an ideal goal.
However, given the different emission properties of many materials used in office furniture, the percentage of panel surfaces, working surfaces, and storage surface areas are not combined to constitute an obvious \"worst\"
Situation of all materials.
Therefore, define a standardized office workstation with panels, working faces, selecting the percentage of storage surface area as a percentage of the total area of the workstation from a workstation with a 50 percentile workstation footprint.
To determine the surface area of the vertical panel, both sides of the furniture system panel (i. e.
, Partition or screen)
Included, ignore the edges and assume that all panel surfaces are exposed.
All panels on each floor plan are included, even if they are part of a shared space or open meeting area.
Independent (i. e. , non-panel-supported)
Furniture desks and chairs (casegoods (i. e.
, Modular cabinet)
, The surface area of the panel is defined as the end plate that includes a modest panel, a desktop screen, a gable, and a desk or return unit.
To determine the area of the working surface, including the top and bottom of the sheet surface, ignore the edges and treat all surfaces as exposed.
Includes all work surfaces and conference tables in the office area, including office public areas.
Determine the outer surface of the storage, all six faces (i. e.
, Top, bottom, front, back, and both sides)
It is considered to be exposed to flipper door overhead cabinets, lockers, wardrobe cabinets, drawer base files that are not under the working face and lateral files that are not under the working face. For drawer-
Base or side file located below the working surface, five surfaces (i. e.
, Bottom, front, back and sides)are included (
This excludes the top surface created by the working surface).
For two separate credenzas and-
The drawer landscape file, whose top surface is treated as a working surface, rather than an external storage area, in order to compare the available working surfaces between the workstation size and configuration.
Total horizontal surface area for shelves (i. e.
, Top and bottom)
Included, but not edge, end plate structure or support for consistency.
Includes all the storage space around the office area, including a shared file library on the aisle.
Based on this analysis (see Figure 3)
For the new open workstation, the area of the 50 percentile workstation is 3. 34 [m. sup. 2](36 [ft. sup. 2]).
In order to investigate whether the largest floor plan with the most workstations in the analysis is not properly affecting the distribution of workstation sizes, the data set was re-analyzed while excluding the two largest floor plans, but the results still show that, the percentage of workstations is the highest in 2 ranges. 97 to 3. 72 [m. sup. 2](32 to 40 [ft. sup. 2]).
In order to include a reasonable workstation sample when determining the surface area of the 90-percentile total workstation, all floor area workstations in the range of plus and minus one
Includes the third of the standard deviations of the distribution.
This is equivalent to 36 [+ or -]6. 4 [ft. sup. 2]
, Including open workstations covering an area of 29. 6 to 42. 4 [ft. sup. 2].
For the new private office workstations, the 50-percent workstation area is 13. 47 [m. sup. 2](145 [ft. sup. 2])
Standard deviation of 1/3 is 2. 1 [m. sup. 2](23 [ft. sup. 2]).
Applying the same logic, the floor area is a private office workstation between 11. 3 and 15. 6 [m. sup. 2](122 and 168 [ft. sup. 2])
Included in the calculation of the total area of the 90-percentile workstation.
This resulted in a total of open plan workstations and 142 private offices in 1982, from which 90 percentage points of the total area of the workstations were calculated.
To determine the building area of the associated public office space for each workstation, the allocated public area as a percentage of the open plan or private office (
See Equation 3 and Table 2)
As shown in Formula 4 below, use from each floor plan.
Equation 4 Calculate the workstation size (floor area)
Common area allocated: therefore, when determining the panel surface area of a single workstation, the size of the common workspace on both sides of the panel will exceed the actual panel surface area of each workstation, and some furniture emission requirements (California 2000; BIFMA 2005;
As shown in figure 5.
Therefore, any single workstation panel surface area that is not considered for panel sharing is corrected by multiplying the exaggerated panel surface area of a single workstation by the ratio of the total actual panel surface area, divided by the exaggerated panel surface area within the open floor plan area of each floor plan.
California, for example (2006)
The Tiled workstation has a separate 319 【ft. sup. 2]
Panel surface area is only 220 [ft. sup. 2]
Panel area for six packs.
The ratio of actual area to exaggerated area is 220/319 = 69%.
The surface area of all furniture in the common space of each floor plan office is also recorded, just as the common office area is allocated to each workstation, panel, working face, and the storage area of the public office area is also allocated to each workstation.
For open flat workstations that specify a 50 percentile size range, no panel surface area exists in public office space.
For private office workstations within the specified 50 percentile size range, there is no additional panel, working face or storage area in the public office space.
The resulting 90 percentile is listed in Table 3, representing the standard workstation surface area of the \"worst case.
The various office furniture workstation types recorded in Appendix 2 of BIFMA m7 can meet these regional goals. 1-2005.
Support data for open plan workstations and private offices are shown in Table 4 and table 5.
For open flat workstations in the 50 percentile range, the weighted average building area allocated public space is 63. 48 [ft. sup. 2]. Therefore 64 [ft. sup. 2]
Was selected as the building area of the standard workstation with 36 [ft. sup. 2]
Floor space with relevant public space.
For private offices in the 50 percentile range, the weighted average building area allocated public space is 253 square meters. 22 [ft. sup. 2].
Thus, 256 [ft. sup. 2]
Built area Selected as standard private office workstations with area of 144 [ft. sup. 2]
Floor space with relevant public space.
Compared with the existing office environment model to facilitate comparison with the indoor test results of the historical office environment model, panel, and working face, Table 6 provides storage components for two sample open plan workstations.
Note that the storage assembly consists of powder
Coated metal with extremely low formaldehyde emission.
Table 7 shows the estimated formaldehyde concentration of these two sample open plan workstations using each office environment model.
These models use a variety of different parameters and assumptions, and most do not use a airflow rate based on ASHRAE 62. 1-2004.
Of course, other materials and combinations also produce different concentrations.
These two sample workstations illustrate that for workstation materials with known emission factors, each model will predict different concentrations (e. g.
Working face construction with formaldehyde release coefficient of 100 ug/[m. sup. 2]?
H determined according to Chamber of Commerce tests will produce very different predicted concentrations depending on the office environment model used).
The lack of consistency between office environment models indicates that it is difficult to compare the results of various projects and also highlights the need for standard models. Table 4.
Open workstations with a total area of 50 percentile are a combination of various materials used (i. e.
Panels, storage and working surfaces)
, There is no model to predict the highest concentration in all cases.
However, the ratio of airflow to surface area provides a relative indication of the rigor of each model (
Lower ratio is more strict)
For each surface type (
Panel, working surface or storage).
Reference equation 1, for maximum allowable concentration (C)
Maximum allowable emission factor (E)
Equal to the allowed concentration multiplied by the airflow ratio ([Q. sub. 0])
Divided by surface area ([A. sub. 0]).
Therefore, the lower the ratio of airflow rate to surface area, the lower the emission coefficient.
Based on this analysis, the California 2000 model is the most stringent for panel surface emissions with a ratio of 0.
82, BIFMA m7. 1-
The 2005 model is the most stringent for the discharge of the working face, with a ratio of 2.
46, the California 2006 tile workstation model is the most stringent for emissions of storage components with a ratio of 1. 67 (
Highlight in bold in Table 7. ).
Conclusion The representative \"worst case\" standard open office environment of a single workstation system is defined as 5. 94 [m. sup. 2](64 [ft. sup. 2])
Floor 2. 74 m (9 ft)high (576 [ft. sup. 3]or 16. 3 [m. sup. 3])
Accounting standards 1. 83 X 1. 83 m (6 X 6 ft)
Open plan workstation system, traffic area and support space for shared copiers, files, storage, etc.
Assuming that the space is occupied by an occupant, the outdoor clean air ventilation rate is 4. 17 L/s (8. 84 cfm)
Meets ASHRAE Standard 62. 1-2004.
Representative, the \"worst case\" standard private office environment for a single workstation system is defined as 23. 78 [m. sup. 2](256 [ft. sup. 2])
Floor 2. 74 m (9 ft)high (2304 [ft. sup. 3]or 65. 2 [m. sup. 3])
Accounting for a standard 13. 38 [m. sup. 2](144 [ft. sup. 2])
Share dedicated office workstation systems, traffic areas, and support spaces such as copiers, files, storage, etc.
Assuming that the space is occupied by a single occupant, the outdoor or clean air ventilation rate is 9. 63 L/s (20. 4 cfm)
Meets ASHRAE Standard 62. 1-2004.
The office environment established by this study includes
Record trends with smaller workstation sizes include conservative high (90 percentile)
The surface of the total furniture, and the use of the minimum outdoor, clean air flow speed in line with the latest (2004)
In some cases, these office environments are more stringent than other historical models, apparently based on actual buildings, and are the \"worst case\" of the current office furniture setting \".
Ideally, all office furniture emission plans should use the same occupant exposure scenario in order to directly compare indoor test results between furniture types, manufacturers, and certification plans.
The author gratefully thanks the hard work and analytical participation of the following individuals: Chris Deman, Steven deer, Melissa dubs, Jon gawhart, Robert grucia, Jim
Goodchild, David Hernández, Doug Hietkamp, Jeff soft tissue release, Zabrina Pendon Randy Ruster, John handle, Steve Trinkel, Danis van walkerburg, Karen is worth it.
Al Hodgson of the Berkeley Analytics Association provides insights on comparing airflow/surface ratios between exposure models.
The authors also acknowledge the support, participation and cooperation of the following companies: Global Group International, Haworth Inc.
Kimball International Limited
KI, the company of Steelcase.
And iron knife company.
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Carter is the chief engineer of the code and approval department of the Steelcase Inc. , MI Grand Rapids, and is also the chairman of the furniture emission standards (FES)
Subcommittee of Furniture Manufacturers Association of Commerce and institutions (BIFMA)
S. , MI, Grand Rapids, International. J. S.
Zhang is a professor and director of the Building Energy and Environmental Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Syracuse University, New York. (1)BIFMA is a not-for-
The furniture manufacturers and suppliers profit trade association cooperates in the cooperation forum on issues of common concern.
Once the national standards association of the United States (ANSI)
Standard developers certified for more than 20 years now have eight voluntary national standards for American furniture.
More details are provided on Www. bifma. org. (2)
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Although the California 01350 agreement was originally developed for a small chamber test of building materials in 1998, it was later added in 2004, in 2000 and 2006, the California Department of Health prepared procurement specifications for office furniture materials with reference to 01350, and the results were used to estimate emissions for the entire workstation Assembly or the entire workstation system.