100 years of wood office furniture design.
First, there was an elevator in 1853.
The invention allowed the construction of higher buildings and eventually the construction of skyscrapers.
They also used new steel frames and curtains.
The main occupants of these high-rise buildings are offices, which makes them larger than before and are concentrated in the city.
With the beginning of wood and wood products, the telephone invented in 1876 and the typewriter developed by Remington in 1868 were widely used in more and more offices.
The wooden office furniture design responds to these inventions and the paper they produce, as was the case with computers widely used in early 1950 and photocopiers in late 1950.
There must be someone to deal with this paperwork.
In 1890, with the expansion of industrial production, the number of office staff in the United States increased tenfold to 1920.
Fortunately, for all these workers, the use of electric lights became common in early 1900.
The office staff need a table, a chair, and maybe a document and/or a shelf.
All of this furniture was made of wood and it was not until the age of 1930 that the metal filing cabinet began to replace the old wooden furniture.
Few people think about setting up an office in a sensible way.
The furniture has just been put in place, just like in the classroom, it is often arranged in rows.
Sometimes, administrative and regulatory private offices are built along a wall or possibly around the entire perimeter.
With the increase of staff, more furniture was brought into the existing space until the space was exhausted.
The office staff did not expect or receive any privacy.
Gradually, in the 1930 s, companies that produce metal filing cabinets also began to produce metal desks, especially for use in \"bullpen\", which is important that \"these tables are usually cheaper than wood.
Most items are sold by stationery and office equipment dealers, and a box of paper and a secretarial chair are equally important to them.
After the end of World War II, the growth of the metal office furniture business stopped briefly, when the army needed all the steel.
But with the end of the war, steel office furniture manufacturers are ready for active marketing.
Wood Manufacturers fought back by setting up the wood office furniture Institute, based in Washington. C.
WOFI\'s equally aggressive advertising campaign, as well as the emphasis on strategic planning for administrative and general offices, helped to crack down on steel acquisitions.
However, with the wood makers starting to use steel parts, the steel makers have added wooden countertops, and office furniture is clearly office furniture.
The days of two separate industries have passed.
WOFI became a short film in 1963.
OFMI, residence of Office Furniture Manufacturers Association.
Ten years later, the Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association was founded.
The system furniture office and their staff continue to expand and there are very few offices with large rooms.
The answer is a new furniture. systems.
The system revolution of office furniture from the middle
1960, the increase in office staff, coupled with strong business growth and the emergence of computers, contributed to this trend.
This situation has also caused the shortage of office space.
Compared to the use of traditional furniture, system furniture allows more office staff to enter the existing space.
System furniture also uses more vertical space on the working surface than traditional furniture.
System furniture has also helped solve a more important problem: the emergence of computers has brought about changes in the composition of office staff.
Low-income employees are replaced by growing, highly educated and highly paid professional and technical workers.
These people want and need to have more options on their furniture, what kind of system the furniture can give them.
It helps allow height for most systems-
Adjustable working surface required by computer operator.
Another advantage of the system furniture is that it can be quickly changed, modified and added as needed to meet the needs of these professionals, or changes in organization and work, sometimes referred to as \"churn \".
\"The cost of replacing a fixed wall is 30 times that of reconfiguring the panel system.
Moreover, the panel system allows more and better communication between office staff.
With the panel system debut in the late 60th century, another office design concept from Germany is being introduced in the United States.
Called Burolandschaft, translated as \"office landscape\", released by the Quickborn team, named after their hometown.
Without discussing the Quickborner philosophy, some aspects of it affect the design of furniture; it used free-
Standing table, trolley and some screen without anything.
These are placed in a visually random way that allows them to mimic the process of the instrument;
If you can call that)
Is a step in the operation of the office.
There are indoor plants and trees everywhere.
As a result, a battle broke out between Burolandschaft and the panel system.
The panel system won in the US.
The shortcomings of Quickbornburolandschaft include poor acoustic effects, poor space utilization, insufficient visual privacy, and inability to process cloth and wiring as technology advances.
However, this concept is an important pioneer in the design and use of panel systems, as it eliminates fixed walls.
Since the first launch of Office system furniture, three basic types have been developed: * Panel-
Basic system consisting of structural panels and panels
* Independent system composed of Freedom
Standing furniture (
Sometimes including non
And * a system composed of panels and panels
Supporting parts and independent furniture.
The story of the two companies, to see how wooden furniture meets the needs of these growing offices, we can look at the history of the two companies that are booming today, they have roughly covered the past 100, Stowe and Davis (
Now it\'s a part of Steelcase. )
And Herman Miller.
The third design leader is Baker, Napu and Tubbs, whose first piece of furniture appeared in 1893 and is likely to be considered office furniture.
It is a combination of desk and bookcase.
Today, its business is based on a very high level.
The Venetian secretary shown on page 297 is an example of a quality replica furniture.
Please note that each of these three companies was established around and there Grand Rapids, Michigan, attracted by a large number of high-tech
The area has good quality hard wood and skilled labor.
Although both of them have factories around the world today, their main facilities are still in the area of Grand Rapids.
Stowe and Davis, founded in 1879, were originally a high school
Great kitchen and dining table.
Starting with a capital investment of $500, it has grown to a capital stock of $110,000 by 1889.
One of the owners, George Davis, noticed that the company\'s tables for the family had been in the office all the time.
In the 19th century, he began to design and produce director tables for the board of directors and conference rooms.
Soon after, Stowe and Davis began making the bank and office furniture collection and decided in 1917 to focus production on the matching office suites.
8000 suites designed in London is an example --
William Millington\'s training
It\'s his adaptation on the 17th.
American walnut and century British Jacobean style in British pollard oak.
Millington is also designed for Baker, nabhumi and Tubbs.
After acquiring a Big Rapids desk Company in 1928, Stow & Davis launched the industry\'s first desk with a steel frame and a wooden surface.
This resulted in Frank Lloyd Wright Commission trust and Davis producing wood components, steel boxes producing metal frames and components for office furniture designed by architects for the famous Johnson Wax office building in Wisconsin.
Stow & Davis is still using this build method today in the system furniture series in the computer office world, one of the first modular woodsurfaced lines.
Herman Miller was founded in 1905 to make traditional furniture, and Herman Miller hired designer Gilbert Roald in 1929 to start the legend of modern furniture design.
Rod\'s impact on Herman Miller\'s fate is profound.
His simple design stems from his studies in Europe, especially in the fountain Bauhaus of modern architectural design.
There is no doubt that He was influenced by master Bauhaus and by the red and blue chairs of Dutch architect Gerrit Rietveld and by the Finnish architect Al He or she who could bring the office.
Howorth\'s steamboat is completely his own.
It is possible to pack and then open the package to use the portable office anywhere.
Its name is from so-
Known as a ship trunk, used to be stored under passenger berths on the ocean
Go to the ship.
It has a complete
Width, lock door with hinge, with freedom
Standing working surface, tack plate and Mark plate that can be erased.
Also includes two adjustable shelves, one roll
Keyboard tray, 6-
Drawers in inches and 12-
Inch lock drawer.
The ship is 62 3/4 High, 36 inch wide and 24 inch deep.
Another movable office is the Clippers CS-
Designed by Douglas Bauer for Gilbert International;
It looks like the cockpit of a blower made of plywood.
This mobile, portable office is important for more and more teams that are temporarily formed in the office for specific purposes and projects.
Crossings has created a furniture collection developed by haworth, another team-working environment, designed to meet the needs of individual users and teams to freely arrange and adjust offices so that they can create task-specific environments, A working environment for a week, day or hour.
Components can be changed according to the situation.
There is also a private port work area in Steelcase. Forty-eight-square-
Walking personal port work areas with acoustic, visual and Territorial privacy are grouped around public areas of collective action.
Workers can move back and forth from one to the other as needed.
The needs of the office space and the most effective way people work continue to change.
With the development of these requirements, the design of wooden office furniture will also continue to develop. As Dr.
Frank Duffy pointed out that today\'s office was largely invented in the United States, but the three mainstreams of the office furniture industry --
Horworth and Herman Miller-
Is truly a global business that produces and/or sells on many lands around the world. Dr. Walter B. Kleeman, Jr.
It\'s a high point in North Carolina.
Ergonomic consultant based on furniture and interior design.
He also served as a forensic consultant and expert witness for 23 state lawyers involved in accident cases related to furniture and interior design, particularly chairs. Dr.
Kleeman worked as a design editor for wood and wood products from 1984 to 1990.