surveys point the way.
But the burglary continues.
In one incident, several suspects shamelessly bumped a stolen vehicle into the front of the building, leaving a huge hole.
When the alarm sounded, the group stole a lot of construction equipment and then fled by the second stolenvehicle.
A few weeks later, a company employee was robbed with a gun while trying to enter the company\'s facilities.
The crime has become so bad that the company estimates that it lost about $400,000 in theft and vandalism between 1992 and 1997.
It is irritating that the senior management decided to make a more detailed observation of the company\'s safe operations and to identify ways to improve the loss prevention measures.
In February 1997, a contract company was hired to conduct a safety investigation into the house.
The survey took five days to complete and provided the company with a list of bugs and suggestions for security improvements.
Among other things, the investigation found that the contract security officer was responsible for some vandalism and regularly held a \"wave of crime\" as a form of work safety.
Whether it\'s a large manufacturing facility or a small convenience facility, safety surveys are an effective tool to help company safety professionals reduce facility crime.
This survey can reveal the vulnerability and provide security managers with ideas to reduce the risk of the company.
Depending on the size of the facility, the needs of the client and the region of the country, the cost of a security survey is typically between $2,000 and $5,000. (
Companies in the Midwest typically charge between $75 and $150 an hour, while surveys on both coasts range from $200 to $250 an hour. )
When hiring a company to conduct a survey, the security manager should be prepared to detail the problems faced by the company and the objectives of the survey, which takes an average of three to five days to complete.
From executives to cleaners, company personnel should be able to meet with the survey company for about 50 minutes to discuss their personal concerns and the safety issues they witness every day.
In addition, the surveyor must be able to access the facility and the surveyor needs to perform a physical assessment of the building and property to directly observe how the company\'s safe operations operate.
When the process is completed, the security manager should receive a written report and participate face to faceto-
The surveyor describes the problem and provides a face-to-face meeting with detailed advice.
The safety investigation team rarely recommends specific equipment or estimates of potential costs.
After the survey is completed, the company has to shop on its own and decide which options to choose.
Each survey follows the same general pattern, but each survey varies depending on the type of problem it reveals.
The following case studies detail how the three companies improve their safe operations after conducting security investigations.
All cases occurred in Ohio last year.
The first two companies have implemented some or all of the advice of the survey team, while the third is still improving security and has not yet decided on a follow-up option.
The construction equipment supply company mentioned at the beginning of this article, headquartered in Peoria, Illinois, has been operating a factory in Ohio for many years.
The site consists of a 8,200-square-
On about two acres of land, the foot building is located inside a depression
The city business district employs 8 workers.
The company\'s main business is to lease construction equipment such as shovels, cranes and lifts to contractors and builders across the state.
There are offices in the building, repairs-
There is also a large room in the repair area.
All the rental equipment was stored in the yard, as well as the company\'s trucks, trucks and car fleets --
Hardware and vehicles worth millions of dollars.
The security action is supervised by the general manager of the site, who is not a security professional.
The company spends $70,000 a year on contract guard services to maintain an armed officer of the facility at night. A chain-
The barbedwire-covered fence surrounds the entire perimeter of the site, with infrared motion sensors.
In the evening, four spotlights illuminate the yard, including three separate pillars and a spotlight attached to the corner of the building.
Motion sensors, surveillance cameras and alarm systems are installed in the building.
Another camera monitors the entrance of two cars.
However, the second entrance was not monitored.
When the survey team arrived, the first step was to talk to the general manager and staff to determine their concerns.
The manager is anxious to solve the problem.
He explained that the headquarters was considering shutting down the facility and transferring it to another place because the crime was out of control.
He would like the investigators to identify all existing issues and provide him with a list for his advice to senior management.
The survey team conducted interviews with all 8 employees to identify their projections and insights into the company\'s security measures.
From these interviews, the investigation team was able to start focusing the inspection on specific issues.
For example, employees explain that drugs are a major problem in the surrounding areas.
Drug addicts often support their addiction by robbing to get quick cash.
As a result, the investigation focused in part on the security weaknesses that made the company vulnerable to robbery.
This focus has been strengthened through the study of local crime statistics.
According to police reports, the company is in 5-year period.
They included 19 burglary, 3 theft of employee vehicles, 3 vandalism, 1 theft of employee cars and 1 armed robbery.
Other questions were also revealed in the interview.
Several workers said that they often noted that unauthorized personnel entered the store and other parts of the property without being questioned;
Assuming a nuisance alarm, the local police station has stopped responding to the alarm, they said.
The staff also reported that no one was monitoring the internal CCTV camera, which made it a useless tool.
The employee is skeptical about the contract security officer.
They think this is not helpful and may even be the cause of the problem.
Based on these interviews, the inspection team had a head-on confrontation with the official, who admitted that he had repeatedly broken windows and destroyed equipment and then claimed that he had scared away the criminals.
He said he was eager to keep his job. (
The officer no longer works at the facility, and the company has reached an agreement with the contract services, including compensation from the security company\'s insurance company. )
The team found several defects during operation
On-site inspections conducted during the day and at night.
For example, the team noticed that the four spotlights produced shadows, just lighting blocks for the storage yard.
Entering the company without authorization, people can easily hide in many black spots around the company.
The investigation team suggested that the company install the brightersecurity lights to illuminate the wider part of the hotel.
It also recommends placing motion sensors on new lights to be late at the front door, two vehicle entrance doors and loading dock.
Vehicle access to the gate is particularly worrying and raises various questions based on the time of day.
For example, bosigaz is kept open during normal working hours and is accessible to anyone.
Although the company installed surveillance cameras at the gate, employees said they had little time to monitor the cameras and did not have video recorders to record images taken by the cameras, no one can say who entered or who came out.
In addition, the company has installed a system under which every vehicle passing through the gate will pass through the hose and ring a safety Bell, however, during the day when employees quickly learn to ignore the alarm, the alarm is often activated.
In the evening, both doors were locked with chains and padlocks.
Truck drivers transporting equipment and supplies
Four hours a day, had to leave their vehicle at night and open the gate with their hands
Make them vulnerable to anyone waiting in the dark.
On one occasion, a driver was robbed with a gun while trying to open the door.
The panel recommends that the company designate an entrance door and an exit door.
This change will enable the company to control traffic in the compound.
Inspectors recommend installing two electric doors with keyboard control.
Only those who know the password can access the facility, and the driver does not have to leave their vehicle at night to enter.
For visitors who need access to the property during normal working hours, the survey team recommends installing a voice communication system and connecting it to the monitoring desk, authorizing employees to check if the visitor has a legal appointment, access to the facility may be granted or denied.
The team found several problems with the company\'s sperimeter security system, including its motion sensors and fences.
The company has installed four infrared motion sensors in the perimeter that alert and notify the contract monitoring service if someone penetrates the beam.
However, the way the motion detector is positioned is to create many \"dead\" areas throughout the property.
The perpetrator can cross the fence and cross the perimeter without being discovered by the mobile probe.
For example, a sensor is located on the loading dock, 50-four-
A few inches high, allowing criminals to walk below the motion detection area.
The team suggested that the company relocate four sensors to cover the dead corners around it.
It also recommends adding two additional sensors and positioning so thata beam can cover the center of the hotel and detect anyone trying to get inside the hotel.
There is barbed wire on the fence, and companies often store large trucks on both sides of the fence.
This practice allows criminals to climb a truck, jump over a fence and land on another vehicle.
There are also large poles near the fence line that can be used as a \"ladder\" to access the facility \".
Part of the fence is often climbed up so that it is actually at 40five-
Corner, allowing the perpetrator to actually walk through it.
Interviews with employees show that,
In fact, the officer of sitessecsecurity himself climbed into the forest to create the problem.
He eventually suffered during a night security patrol and was allowed to cross the fence.
The team recommends that all vehicles be located within the fence, away from the fence.
The company was told that it should plant trees and other brushes around the fence, which can be used by unauthorized personnel to climb over the fence.
Part of the cause of sagging or falling should be fixed, the team said.
The team also advised the company to move all leased equipment from the yard to a safe storage area.
This will make it harder for the company\'s products to be targeted by criminals, who will no longer see the equipment from the fence line. Results.
After the completion of the investigation in early 1997, the construction supply company lifted the contracted guard service and launched a $250,000 renovation project, in part to improve safety.
Today, motion sensors placed around the property are integrated with external lighting on site and transferred to a remote contract alarm monitoring station.
When the motion sensor starts, it immediately turns on the lights in the area.
However, in order to reduce false positives, the system does not issue a silent alarm to the monitoring center unless the second sensor trips.
The chain fence has been repaired and the equipment has been removed from the perimeter.
In addition, the company has expanded its showroom and storage area and plans to start moving equipment out of the yard and into the new building at the beginning of this year.
Other improvements are planned, including electric doors at two entrances.
The project has been developing for several months and is far from complete.
But the company was not the victim of crimesince in early 1997.
At the beginning of 1997, a small business in East Ohio, after suffering a series of crimes in the previous year, decided that a security investigation was needed.
The small company, owned by two brothers, runs a Laurel Garden Center and a convenience store.
The company operates in separate spaces in the same building.
However, while there was little crime in the garden center, the convenience store was robbed nine times in 1996, including a suspect who drove through the front door and stole beer and wine, before the police responded, cigarettes and snacks.
Money losses are relatively small, but business owners are worried about the safety of their 12 employees.
The physical assessment shows that there is a good safety system in the garden center, including steel doors, heavy-duty-
Working locks for interior door alarms, motion sensors and glass, window bars and electrical subsystems-break alarms.
Also, the windows are broken-
Tempered safety glass.
The main weakness in this regard is that the vehicle can enter its entrance without restriction.
This arrangement may allow the criminals to rush the vehicle into the gate and enter the facility during the \"snatch and escape\" theft.
The surveyor recommends that steel columns filled with cement be inserted about 4 feet in front of the entrance at three placesfootintervals.
This change will prevent any vehicle from entering the entrance.
Another approach, although less efficient, would be to extend and enhance the existing architectural landscape along the side of the facility, with a steel column between the two entrances.
There are many problems with convenience stores.
Although there are audible alarms on the two outer doors of the store, the windows are not safe.
In addition, a large exhaust fan is built into the back wall of the store, and if removed from the outside, it will form a large hole in the building.
Once in, there are no electronic security measures other than the CCTV cameras located at the main entrance of the store, which is easy to avoid.
The door lock is another problem.
They use pin tumbler devices that can be easily implemented.
External lighting is also considered not enough as it leaves many black spots that thieves can hide.
The inspector advises the business to buy a time-
The lapserecorder of the camera so that all events will be recorded on the tape and can be used as evidence if needed.
In addition, the owner was told that they should have a wide angle lens for the camera that could see the entire store.
The camera will be an effective way to prevent employee theft, shop theft and more serious crimes such as armed robbery.
The surveyor thinks the existing door alarm is good, but he thinks three motion sensors should be placed in the store
There is one door each and the other monitors the center of the store.
The third detector is recommended to capture anyone who may enter the store via a fan pipe.
The survey consultant also suggested that safety lights be installed at the front and back doors with motion sensors.
Unless someone triggers a motion detector, the night light stays off.
The inspector also advised the store to reduce the ordering of products and relocate the products currently in possession.
For example, shopkeepers type a lot more cigarettes than they sell in a week, increasing the number of products that may be stolen.
Investigators urged them to order only the number of items they thought could be sold within a week.
In addition, the excess goods (
Often stored near the door of the store, it is easy to be robbedand-grab.
The inspector suggested that this product be stored behind the checkout counter.
The last place to pay attention to is the internal wooden door between the garden center and the convenience store.
If the electronic security system fails, criminals who access one facility will have access to the other.
Safety professionals recommend the removal of adjacent doors and the entrance passage is sealed using a building-style Mason block.
Business partners have implemented several proposals from the survey inspection team. High-
The convenience store has installed a safe outer door lock;
A plug-in board is installed on the outer door;
External lighting outside the convenience store has also increased.
The owner also reduced the amount of inventory they ordered at any given time, while assigning items to the back of the store\'s checkout area.
Since the implementation of the new security measures at the end of 1997, they have not suffered any crimes.
Security investigations do not always end with suggestions to increase physical security.
Weaknesses in safety procedures and employee training can also be exposed.
This is the case with the head office of the National Insurance Company, which is based in a rural community with approximately 10,000 people and employs 150 workers.
Although there are small towns in Ohio.
Media criticism of workplace violence, attacks and other incidents has raised concerns among insurance company executives.
In addition, the executive manager of the company also served in the town council and maintained close contact with the local police chief.
The first-hand information he heard from officials raised awareness among managers of crime and the need for them to actively protect their employees. A two-
A one-week security survey was conducted in June 1997.
Although the physical assessment helps to reveal some of the safety weaknesses, the findings in this case are mainly based on employee interviews and an analysis of local crime statistics. Crime stats. The fifteen-
The Police Department recorded an average of 199 complaints per month over the past year.
Most of these complaints involve annoying calls such as barking or wandering, although there have indeed been minor theft and burglary incidents in the town.
Random violence does not seem to be a problem.
More than 15 police records-
During the month period, there were 1 rape, 4 robberies and 1 serious beating.
No killings were reported.
The most notable statistics are 289 reports of domestic violence.
Judging from these data, the investigation team concluded that insurance companies should not focus primarily on minor and other minor offences.
Instead, the team will initially focus on access control procedures and training designed to prevent the spread of domestic violence to the workplace.
In the initial employee interview, topexecutives expressed concern about workplace violence due to two sources: angry customers whose benefits were cut off or rejected, their spouse brought family problems into three insurance companies.
The story of the downtown office building.
The investigation team also interviewed claims personnel, financial managers, maintenance personnel, telephone operators and safety managers.
Interviews show that the company is under-trained and has few plans or policies to respond to threats and emergencies, including the departure of hostile employees, threats to senior managers, hostile visitors, and threatening calls.
For example, two telephone operators of the company
Who looks at the front desk in the front desk lobby-
Said they were instructed to \"hang up\" the angry caller \".
If a call is a huge threat, the operator is told to notify only the senior management.
The company\'s \"bomb threat check list\" does not include a list of standard questions asking callers, nor does it give any information that might help the police identify callers.
Also, once notified of the bomb threat, the managers were not given any instructions.
Other employees are not notified;
If the threat is considered serious, there is no plan on how to evacuate the building.
In an interview, an employee in charge of depositing the company\'s money into a local bank expressed concern because she often brought a bag of cash to the bank without any security escort.
Other staff members said they would allow strangers to enter the facility without identification because they were not aware of the company\'s access control procedures or policies.
Despite the company\'s use of the card access control system, employees say they have never received any training and do not know the capabilities of the system.
For example, authorized visitors-
Company personnel such as state auditors or other offices-
It sometimes takes several consecutive working days to get into the facility.
The security department will not issue access cards to these visitors because they are concerned that these badges will not be returned and may cause access control problems in the future.
They do not know that these cards can be programmed to work for a certain period of time, or limited to certain doors;
They do not know that these cards can be deactivated.
Instead, the Security Department issues a visitor pass that cannot be used in the card reader.
Visitors should sign in and sign in, but the policy has not been implemented, the staff said.
If a visitor forgets to sign in, there is no way to know if the person is still in the building when the office is closed for the night.
The physical assessment also reveals deficiencies in employee training and knowledge of duties.
For example, the investigation team notes that no one regularly checks the daily logs of all entrances and exits recorded by the stateof-the-
Access control system.
In one case, the inspectors noted that access to the facility was made at 1: 51. m.
On a Saturday, another entrance was recorded at 12: 28 a. m. m. on a weeknight.
While there is no evidence that the person entering the building was guilty when the building was closed, this unusual activity should be a red flag and report to the company\'s security manager.
The inspection also showed that the reception staff of the company took too much responsibility, making it difficult for them to control access to the facility.
Although they should control the entrance to tourists, they are often distracted by numerous calls.
In addition, the receptionist is unable to guarantee safety if thata violent visitors attempt to enter the facility.
The company installed an emergency button at the reception desk, but the device can only start the alarm at the administrative manager\'s office.
If the manager is not there-
This is usually the case-
No one can hear the alarm.
There are also several entry points for parcel delivery and processing.
For example, the company maintains one area for commercial mail delivery and another area for delivery from the United StatesS. Postal Service.
This arrangement adds to places where unauthorized people have access to the facilities.
This also increases the possibility of commercial packaging screening hazardous, threatening or hazardous materials by personnel who have not been trained before delivery to employees.
Although all exterior doors are equipped with magnetic locks and alert, inspectors have found that it is possible to enter the facility by breaking the glass panels on both sides of the exterior door.
The inspectors also noted that unauthorized personnel could enter the building by removing the headlight panel and through the crawling space above the ceiling.
In addition, unwanted visitors can access the facility through underground doors and tunnels that connect the insurance company\'s building to the county office building across the street.
The inspectors found further weaknesses in the windows that could be opened;
Lack of electronic internal and external security systems such as motion detectors and surveillance cameras;
Provide cover bushes and trees for unauthorized personnel;
Insufficient lighting around buildings and parking lots;
And unsafe internal access to the senior management office. Suggestions.
Most of the advice is based on raising awareness and training for employees.
First of all, inspectors recommend that the company establish an emergency management team consisting of security managers, executives and key supervisors in the main operating departments.
The team will work with security advisers, local law enforcement agencies and civil emergency services to develop emergency plans and policies to deal with workplace violence, such as angry customers, emergency evacuation procedures.
The emergency management team will serve as the decision-making team during the crisis.
The investigation inspector also suggested that the functions of the existing access control system should be introduced to employees.
Although the survey consultants were willing to provide some basic training, they advised the company to call the supplier who installed the system for more detailed training.
Also urging the company to develop a policy statement off track to disseminate to all employees, explaining the company\'s access control policy, including how to wear badges, and what the staff should do if an unauthorized person tries to get into the facility.
Inspectors also provided samples of bomb threat procedures to the security department and urged them to develop simple instructions that could be provided to all employees.
The survey also addressed some physical security needs.
The inspector suggested that the company extend the one-card system to internal departments and elevators leading to the senior management office.
The company is advised to install indoor glass-
Breaking alarm and regional motion-
Sensitive devices that integrate two systems with card access technology.
The investigation team also suggested that the company install-
Sensitive lighting around buildings and parking lots and installation of open surveillance cameras and monitors for external entrances, loading docks, reception/switchboard areas, elevators, all doors to the advanced management office area.
The cameras will be fully monitored, they explained.
Personnel can inform the police of the time monitoring station in case of emergency.
As security professionals know, ignorance of security weaknesses is only happy for those who wish to take advantage of them.
A company that does not want to expose itself to such predators must be willing to look carefully at its own defects and then put the necessary time, effort and resources into correcting them. As thesereal-
Examples in life show that safety surveys can put organizations firmly on the right path to a safe selfimprovement. Douglas R.
Ryan is a retired special agent, a special agent. in-
Director of allegations and investigations with the United StatesS.
Air Force Special investigation office.
He is currently a senior researcher at the PLE Group in Dayton, Ohio.