a healthy approach to card access.
Luke\'s Hospital describes how the new one-card access system reduces the need for additional personnel when the hospital expands. In 1991, St.
Luke\'s hospital is planning a large expansion of 300,000 square feet, including ten floors and arooftop heliport.
The project will put a lot of pressure on the security sector because the resources there are already very tight.
The senior management did not want to increase security funding accordingly, so the security team began to look at its options.
The security department decided that access control systems would help control the physical environment and provide more time for security officers to operate other services.
This process begins by reviewing the needs of the organization and then analyzing how access control systems can help meet those needs.
The next steps include obtaining administrative approval, ensuring budgeting and installation.
The main issues addressed in this process include the selection of systems and the education and training of staff. St.
Bed teaching hospital in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Eighteen buildings in the hospital, some places
Campus, from a few blocks to twenty.
Five miles from the main hospital.
They include a nursing school, a delivery center and aday-
Each center has a unique security service requirement.
The hospital was first chartered in 1872 and expanded in stages in the coming 123.
Therefore, the components of different structures vary greatly in age.
I have been interested in card access control systems as safety director since 1988.
From 1988 to about 1992, the organization does not accept access control systems, mainly because the issue of capital expenditure and safety and personal security is not the feeling of the problem.
In addition, senior management expressed doubts about the security department\'s ability to maintain and use complex systems.
The security department knows that the time for such a system will come and begins to position itself to address this challenge. Needs.
Considering the size of the campus and the number of buildings, it is not difficult to determine that security requirements can be handled more effectively through access control systems.
Many buildings have ground entrances that need to be monitored.
The main hospital has more than 50 doors leading to the street;
Most of these entrances should remain open without triggering an alarm.
Security personnel spent a lot of valuable time during the shift trying to make sure the doors were protected.
To solve this problem, St.
Luke restricted smoking in the gate area.
Employees who need a quick smoking break usually walk out of the nearest door.
They often leave the gate unsafely when returning to work.
Security personnel found themselves patrolling the same location many times to protect the locked door a few hours ago.
The School of Nursing also encountered the problem of residents leaving the door.
Most students are too busy or naive about whether their place of residence is safe.
The security department must also control and monitor access when shut down
On-site construction does not require the way officials stay in the facility.
Many buildings are closed and left unattended at night, weekends and holidays.
To limit the risk of theft and vandalism, an intrusion detection system was installed and monitored by an external company in 1990.
As the security team reviewed the existing arrangements, it determined that the monthly monitoring fee was high relative to the service and that the service would only call the police department and the construction manager when the alarm was triggered.
Unless a change is made, the costs will continue to rise because, like many other hospitals in the country, St.
Luke\'s outpatient and outpatient clinics are growing. On-site facilities. Key control.
Controlling the distribution of keys to all hospital buildings is another issue that the security department needs to address.
Employees often leave the organization without Returning Keys, forcing the security department to waste resources on expensive lock changes and key replication.
Hospitals also need a better way to provide staffhours access.
Many departments are in
Call the staff all the time in the evening.
After visiting the hospital, the only way to get into the hospital is through an already crowded emergency area.
The staff of the Emergency department and the security personnel assigned there are all used to control the employees entering the hospital.
Attention should also be paid to the parking lot.
With minimal space available, it is important to maintain the space necessary for inpatient and visitors, but the security department cannot spend laboratory time monitoring these lots.
In addition, while there are very few serious crimes committed by hospitals, there have also been incidents of violence in the surrounding communities, which have been committed by some employees.
They say they want to strengthen the safety of the parking lot before the real problem occurs.
The security department agreed on the need for preventive measures.
These problems exist even before the planned expansion, which will complicate the security challenges.
The newly added Hospital will add 6 patient floors, a large outpatient testing center and a new medical education center.
The education center will include astate-of-the-
The art library that doctors, medical staff and nursing students want to visit all the time of the day.
Benefits of technology.
The new access control system will be able to address many of these issues while releasing security officers to handle other duties.
Through a master computer located in the security department and a control panel strategically placed throughout the facility, the system will monitor and control the doors with timers, magnetic locks and door contacts.
Security guards will be alerted to the locked door. Off-
The site building will be controlled by a card reader and a door that is automatically locked at the end of the working day.
Security personnel will monitor intrusion alarms in these buildings, saving hospital monthly fees previously paid to external alarm monitoring services and increasing response time.
Some internal doors, such as the door to the Medical Library, will be controlled by card access so that employees can easily enter.
This approach will define the need for an officer to respond whenever an employee arrives only by opening the door.
Card technology will also make it possible to specify a time zone;
The employee can only enter the specified door and time.
Access control cards will reduce key control costs by eliminating the need for lock changes and key replacement when keys are lost or personnel changes occur.
Because crime is not a major problem in St.
Luke\'s, the security department needs to sell the management of the system\'s ability to save hospital expenses for a long time.
With this in mind, the security department calculates the office hours required to maintain and control access at many sites of the company;
According to wages and benefits, the annual cost is $54,000 (
Average $150 per person per day).
It is then estimated that after the planned increase in hospitals, the provision of expanded security services will require an additional labor force of $60,000.
Access control systems can offset the need for additional staffing by allowing the deployment of existing resources, thus avoiding most of the increased costs.
As mentioned earlier, avoiding the replacement of keys and locks will result in additional savings.
The exact savings are difficult to calculate because the security department is unable to determine how many employees will lose their keys or terminate employment without returning them.
To illustrate the problem, historical costs have been noted.
Ability to bring-
On-site intrusion alarm monitoring-
Families can also save money.
At first, the savings were only a few thousand dollars a year. But many of St.
On-site buildings need to be vigilant and plans are being made to add them.
Number as off-
The increase in the site alarm site, related savings will also increase.
There are savings figures at hand and the security department is ready to prove this, but the department will not immediately ask for everything because the project has the best chance of approval if it is requested in stages.
As we all know, there is a reverse relationship between cost and approval.
The higher the cost, the less likely the approval will be.
If the capital expenditure reaches or exceeds $50,000, it will not be approved.
Small-scale expansion began in a few years, not only for financial and administrative approval, but also for practical reasons.
The phased implementation of the project will make it easier for the system to be implemented and managed.
The first phase will cost $20,000 and will require the development of the ability to monitor the two buildings with a card reader and a door alarm.
In each financial year ahead, the security plan requires capital expenditures of approximately $15,000 to $20,000 and operating costs of approximately $5,000 to expand access control capabilities and services.
Capital costs are used to purchase large equipment, while operating costs are used to pay for incidental equipment such as cards and door contacts and magnetic locks.
This method has worked well so far.
There was no resistance to the proposal of the securities company and has been approved for the next fiscal year.
Qualification of officer.
In an effort to persuade the government to approve the system, a stumbling block is a concern about the security department\'s ability to operate such complex equipment.
The reputation of this department needs to be improved.
A challenging process of education and training was started at november1993.
Hospital safety certification textbooks are used as the basis for training programs.
The course load is similar to the university course, which includes a wide range of general and healthcare --
Specific topics include investigation techniques, report writing, how to protect emergency rooms, crisis intervention techniques, fire safety, public relations, law enforcement liaison, etc.
Testing is required for certification.
Since many security personnel have been working in hospitals for many years and do not have such extensive training and testing requirements, attention has been paid to alleviating any concerns and fears that staff may have.
Security officials first prepared videotapes and discussions for the upcoming training;
Actual training began in January 1994.
The security sector relies on various internal and external resources to implement the plan.
Local law enforcement officers helped in training and presentation. In-
House lawyers teach courses on the use of force and search and seizure procedures.
The administrative department of the hospital supports the training work.
For example, the vice president of pharmacy services came in to help security officials understand trends in drug theft and how to investigate incidents.
After the entire staff completed a full course of about nine months, the hospital\'s senior vice president provided other evidence of government support for the program by attending the certificate awards ceremony.
By improving the skills and knowledge of security personnel, the department has successfully won the respect and trust of management.
This new attitude became clear as management began to give new responsibility to the security sector and asked it to advise on a range of issues.
The team is now ready to use the latest unsafe technology.
The selection process.
After obtaining government permission, a search for the correct access control system was started.
Most of the systems reviewed can meet immediate needs, but the department hopes to develop affordable systems that meet the future needs of hospitals over the next five years.
Prior to the selection process and throughout the process, I visited the security manager of fellowhospender to discuss access control.
The contact person provides valuable information that is not available in the supplier or brochure.
Colleagues often put forward opinions that I have not considered.
Most people share their likes and dislikes of various systems, and some shared stories have taught me about possible obstacles to success.
For example, several safety supervisors encountered a battery failure while using the proximity card system.
Another issue mentioned by securities practitioners involves pricing.
Suppliers will quote a low price to the base system and then double the price for additional components later, which makes it too expensive for these companies to expand their systems.
The third issue often raised by safety supervisors is the lack of training.
The supplier will build a system and leave.
The security department will then find that these officials lack the skills to properly run the new system.
In addition to revealing some common problems, these discussions with other security professionals provide knowledge of the adzen system without any purchase pressure.
This kind of communication is very worthwhile.
The next step in this process is to write a specific list and requirements for the system.
The hospital factory operations administrator provided technical assistance to security, an engineer with years of experience in facility management.
The system must have the ability to control the shutdown-
On-site facilities, including the ability to automatically lock the door through a timer, alarm safety when the door is opened, and monitoring of intrusion and fire alarms.
The system will have to deal with about 5,000 cards, 50 readers and 200 doors in 25 offsite buildings. St.
Luke also needs a number of programmable time zones to accommodate different schedules and vacation and weekend shifts in the hospital environment.
All codes of life safety and other applicable rules must be observed;
This will include power backup and door release coverage when the fire protection system is activated.
Cards must be compatible with photosID technology.
Although hospitals do not yet have this type of ID device, security wants to be able to integrate these features in the future.
The Weigand card technology was finally chosen as it is considered less vulnerable to damage than magnetic strips and barcodes, and the cost of yetnot is not as good as the proximity card or biometric technology.
The system must be flexible in several ways.
The department does not want to be locked into any one vendor, so the system must be compatible with various systems.
It must also be able to work with doors of many types, styles and ages throughout the campus.
Some of the hospital\'s doors are glass and some are steel or wood.
Some are single, some are double;
Some are new, some are 60.
People need a variety of export equipment due to the different groups of people served.
Infrared motion detectors will be used in the public, many of whom are elderly and can be accessed, and leave without the need to press a button.
For ease of use, the system must be able to generate an activity report and download it to disk.
The last requirement is that the system is able to use the communication dialer, which can alert the alarm situation.
With the dialer, the officer does not have to wait for the monitor of what is going on. Bids.
All suppliers must submit bids based on the same package of the acard reader, several doors, and the brain or software of the system.
All prices must include the unit cost of each device.
Unit cost provides important information about the cost of extending the system over the next few years.
By analyzing this data, the security department can determine what drives the cost of the system and can plan future growth to optimize spending.
A system for Simplex was finally selected for many reasons. St.
Luke\'s fire system has already had a relationship with the supplier.
In addition, the company has a branch office 15 miles from the hospital and it is always available when services are needed.
Simplex is very competitive in pricing, although not the lowest bidder, but the unit price of its future expansion is reasonable.
Buying a software upgrade that costs thousands of dollars, the system can be easily extended to support more control points and cards.
The system uses a cheap alarm board and relays signals through many fire-fighting transponder that already exist in the facility to complete the required automatic door monitoring.
The required components, such as locks, can be selected from various other manufacturers. Implementation.
As mentioned earlier, security starts to be small when access control is implemented.
The nursing school two blocks away from the hospital and the financial and computer center four blocks away are the first buildings to be connected.
These buildings have only a small number of doors and users for system management.
The School of Nursing has more people in this system and provides faculty and students with the first tests used in many different time zones.
Both areas deserve special attention, as one is home finance and computer information, and the other is a group of young women.
Each building has a door to grantaccess controlled by a card reader, and the rest are controlled by a magnetic lock or a magnetic door.
Only a few areas in-
Line, the department has time to become familiar with the programming aspect without worrying about the negative impact on the entire facility if something goes wrong. Training.
The education and training of security personnel have received considerable attention.
The primary responsibility for the training was handed over to the department head and a security officer.
The department secretary who is proficient in computer software is responsible for learning the system and enabling it to run.
She then organizes and loads data and helps department heads and assistants train other members of the security team to use the system.
The software is menu-driven and allows easy access to users around the system.
Data can be protected by preventing accidental deletion of passwords.
Access levels have been developed to give officials the opportunity to work with day-to-day business units without affecting the data.
Security personnel quickly understand the operation of the access control system and the functions of software programs;
They also do a good job of controlling the hardware of the door.
The trainer has developed a brief set of instructions for each task that an officer may need to perform during the shift.
Officials have been using these instructions until they feel comfortable with their own operating system.
Owner\'s Manual and safety personnel can still be used as a reference source for officials.
There is no problem with security officials adapting to the system.
The next step is to promote the acceptance of the technology by hospital staff, including the administrative department.
Hold Security meetings with employees and students affected by the system to discuss the purpose and limitations of card access.
The security department explains how the system works and some potential issues that may hinder effective functioning.
The hospital decided not to initially charge the user for the card or replacement card because it wanted to report the lost card immediately to prevent others from obtaining it.
Those who received the card were positive about the policy.
They think the hospital\'s concerns about their safety are real and more important than protecting the expense line. Learning curve.
The security society pays special attention to data entry.
The process of entering information into the access control system computer is very time-consuming and there is an opportunity for error.
The computer operates exactly as indicated.
Data allowing access and control of doors and personnel must be entered correctly to ensure ease of use and compatibility with all operations. Future plans.
The security department has developed a growth plan for the system for the next three years.
Unless there is a significant change in the organization\'s strategic plan, it has identified buildings, doors and parking lots as the next inclusion area of the system.
Onefocus is to place the control panel in a strategic position to maximize the use of the panel while minimizing the distance the wires need to pull.
A panel can monitor up to 16 doors if the position is appropriate (
Ormore with upgrade).
The cost per control panel is about $3,100, so for future growth, placing them wisely can save a lot of money for the whole system.
With the investment of funds, magnetic locks or door contacts can be added to additional doors that are already accessible to these panels.
In order to minimize the installation costs for future purchases of equipment, the administration agrees to include the security department in the planning phase of any new construction project.
Safety will have the opportunity to analyze safety requirements and advise on plumbing or other building aspects that will make wiring easier in the future.
The new building will use access control functions and will have the ability to develop in this area.
As part of the expansion project, the medical library will be monitored through access control, the use of a card reader, and alarm and control over the remaining doors.
Because the library is twenty years old.
Four hours a day, a book safety system was installed.
The security department is able to coordinate its system with the system selected by the library in order to monitor stolen book alerts through the access control system.
The new security system improves security while reducing the amount of personnel time required for monitoring.
According to the plan, the department is now able to redeploy officials to other regions.
Security wants to continue to improve the effectiveness of controlling buildings and parking lots without the need for additional personnel. John S.
Hrubenak is the safety director of St.
Luke hospital Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
He is a member of the Azzy health care standards committee.